DOC-Gram - Design Out Crime and CPTED News - 15 Feb 2021
DOC-Gram - Design Out Crime and CPTED News - 15 Feb 2021
● DOC-Gram Newsletter
New Directions in Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), Design Out Crime and cyber-CPTED
Welcome to Doc-Gram! For the latest information on Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) and Designing Out Crime plus Cyber-CPTED (CPTED + cyber-security).
1. Cyber-CPTED - Doorbell security cameras easily hackable by criminals
2. CPTED to prevent Modern Slavery
3. CPTED Crime Risk Assessments - when to redo them?
4. CPTED and Designing Out Crime resources
Doorbell cameras are easily hacked by criminals
Researchers at the Florida Institute of Technology recently demonstrated how criminals find it easy it is to hack wireless doorbell cameras.
Why is this important?
The most immediate value to a criminal in hacking your doorbell camera is it tells them when you are out.
It also tells them your routine activities (including those of your neighbours) enabling them better to plan burglary and thefts.
In some cases, hacking doorbell cameras enables deeper access into your personal life allowing criminals and voyeurs to spy via any networked cameras inside your home.
Worse, it provides predators, stalkers and the like with deep insights into their victims' behaviours and the limits of their protection.
Attackers can use the vulnerabilities to control (download, add and delete) video from the devices.
This presents additional issues in relation to the increasing tendency to use camera 'evidence' in court both for and against plaintiffs. The ability for third-parties to modify the evidence significantly reduces the value of doorbell and other cameras for litigation and criminal forensics.
This is a classic example of what I have called Cyber-CPTED.
Cyber -CPTED is a new kind of crime prevention approach. It is needed to go beyond the limitations of conventional cyber-security and CPTED to address new forms of crime enabled by combinations of digital and physical environments .
Modern slavery is a term used to describe exploitation and can include:
Sexual exploitation of the vulnerable
Sexual favours to obtain work
Wage theft from the vulnerable
Modern slavery can occur in every industry and sector and has severe consequences for victims.
The Australian Institute of Criminology estimates there were up to 1900 cases of human trafficking and direct slavery in 2016-17. However, this excludes those large numbers of victims involved in the many other categories of modern slavery in Australia.Such as labour exploitation in the horticultural industry in regional Australia, particularly by labour hire companies (see 2017 Parliamentary Inquiry into Modern Slavery).
Strategies to control Modern Slavery have primarily focused on:
Guidance to identify individuals subject to Modern Slavery
Pressure on large enterprises to ensure their supply chains are free of Modern Slavery
Reporting requirements for very large enterprises
Policing of organised crime syndicates
Academic research aimed at revealing the scale and individual experiences of Modern Slavery
For example, entities have a responsibility to respect human rights in their operations and supply chains, as outlined in the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. In Australia, the Commonwealth Modern Slavery Act 2018 of January 2019 established a national Modern Slavery Reporting Requirement.
These prior strategies focus only on the very large-scale international organisational structures (large enterprises and organised crime syndicates) and the smallest human scale (individuals subject to Modern Slavery).
CPTED strategies to control Modern Slavery
Missing from the above are control strategies in the broad middle ground of local government areas in which a large proportion of Modern Slavery occurs. It is this area that local government and crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) strategies can be effective.
Additionally, most previous strategies are targeted to addressing problems AFTER the crime has been committed. They are not crime prevention.
Lacking are strategies for discouraging or preventing Modern Slavery at a local-scale in urban, peri-urban and rural environments, where it occurs most frequently.
This is the scale of local government, planning, local courts, community safety, local policing, and Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED).
CPTED thinking to reduce Modern Slavery
Using CPTED at the local government scale changes the focus to situations and locations in the local environment.
CPTED offers a direct approach to addressing Modern Slavery based on answers to three questions:
Which types of location where modern slavery occurs most commonly?
Which kinds of businesses where Modern Slavery is most commonly found?
Which CPTED approaches will discourage modern slavery in these environments.
These enable targeted CPTED responses to the hot-spots of high-risk Modern Slavery locations in any local government territory.
Multiple CPTED strategies can be used to discourage expose and restrict instances of Modern Slavery, including:
Natural and Formal Surveillance
Natural access control (particularly in relation to documentation)
Territoriality (the ability for workers to manage their lives)
Image and maintenance - e.g. in accommodation and public spaces for farm workers
Geographic juxtaposition analysis (review of locations close to or likely to be influenced by other high risk Modern Slavery environments
Routine Behaviour analysis
Cyber-CPTED strategies - focus on review of electronic records and systems that identify Modern Slavery indications
For example, one of the key reasons for the prevalence of Modern Slavery in certain locations is lack of surveillance of any sort. CPTED approaches can increase natural surveillance in high-risk environments by a variety of means.
Moving forward using CPTED to reduce Modern Slavery
Please contact us if you wish to use our support in using CPTED and related methods to address Modern Slavery.